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Abstract


INTERNATIONAL DENTAL JOURNAL OF STUDENTS RESEARCH - VOLUME 1 ISSUE 2, June-Sept 2012

Pages: 29-41

SEM EVALUATION OF EFFECT OF 37% PHOSPHORIC ACID GEL, 24% EDTA GEL AND 10% MALEIC ACID GEL ON THE ENAMEL AND DENTIN FOR 15 AND 60 SECONDS: AN IN-VITRO STUDY

Author: Narendra Parihar, Manish Pilania

Category: Original Research

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Abstract:

Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between etching of enamel and dentin with different acids: 37% phosphoric acid, 10% maleic acid and 24% EDTA, at different etch durations of 15 and 60 seconds; so as to analyze the surface characteristics of etched enamel, diameter of the dentinal tubules and the depth of demineralization in the tubules under scanning electron microscope (SEM).

Method: Thirty freshly extracted maxillary and mandibular premolars, indicated for orthodontic extraction were selected from patients in the age group of 14 to 21 years.  The teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 teeth each and were etched with 37% phosphoric acid, 24% EDTA gel and 10% maleic acid gel respectively for 15 and 60 seconds.   The samples were then split along their long axes, dehydrated and sputtered with palladium gold.  The sputtered specimens were examined under scanning electron microscope.

Results: Acid etching causes various types of etching patterns in enamel indicating preferential dissolution of the enamel prisms.  With 37% phosphoric acid, type 2 etching pattern is seen; with 10% maleic acid, type 1 etching pattern is predominant and etching with 24% EDTA leads to type 4 etching pattern.  In dentin, etchants widen the dentinal tubule orifices due to demineralization of peritubular dentin and this demineralization extends deep into the dentinal tubules for varying depths depending upon the type of acid used and time of its application.  No statistically significant difference exists in the widening of the dentinal tubule orifices between the group I (37% phosphoric acid) and group III (10% maleic acid) specimens. 

Conclusion: It can be suggested that 15 seconds etching with a milder acid like 10% maleic acid instead of 37% phosphoric acid is sufficient to obtain adequate bond strength because there is no significant difference within the observational parameters, except for the depth of demineralization in tubules.  Additional depth is unnecessary because the adhesive systems cannot penetrate completely into the dentinal tubules, leading to nanoleakage. 

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