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Author Guidelines


IDJSR recommends the manuscript criteria laid down by International Committee for Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).
All manuscripts should align with the following guidelines.

General Principles
The text of articles reporting original research is usually divided into Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion sections. The “IMRAD” structure is not an arbitrary publication format but a reflection of the process of scientific discovery. Subheadings within these sections to further organise their content are preferred.
Case reports, narrative reviews, and editorials may have less structured or unstructured formats.

Reporting Guidelines
Reporting guidelines have been developed for different study designs ->
-CONSORT for randomised trials
-STROBE for observational studies
-PRISMA for systematic reviews and meta-analyses
-STARD for studies of diagnostic accuracy.
Authors of review manuscripts are encouraged to describe the methods used for locating, selecting, extracting, and synthesising data; this is mandatory for systematic reviews. 
Please refer to the reporting guidelines set out by EQUATOR Network

Manuscript Sections
The following are general requirements for reporting within sections of all study designs and manuscript formats.
a. Title Page
General information about an article and its authors is presented on a manuscript title page and usually includes the article title, author information, any disclaimers, sources of support, word count, and sometimes the number of tables and figures.

Article title. The title provides a distilled description of the complete article and should include information that, along with the Abstract, will make electronic retrieval of the article sensitive and specific. Information about the study design should be a part of the title (particularly important for randomised trials and systematic reviews and meta-analyses).

Author information: Each author's highest academic degrees should be listed. The name of the department(s) and institution(s) or organisations where the work should be attributed should be specified. The title page should list the corresponding authors' telephone/mobile numbers and e-mail address.

Disclaimers. An example of a disclaimer is an author's statement that the views expressed in the submitted article are his or her own and not an official position of the institution or funder.

Source(s) of support. These include grants, equipment, drugs, and/or other support that facilitated conduct of the work described in the article or the writing of the article itself.

Word count. A word count for the paper's text, excluding its abstract, acknowledgments, tables, figure legends, and references, allows editors and reviewers to assess whether the information contained in the paper warrants the paper's length, and whether the submitted manuscript fits within the journal's formats and word limits. A separate word count for the Abstract is useful for the same reason.

Number of figures and tables. A specification of the number of Figures and Tables before uploading the relevant files. These numbers allow editorial staff and reviewers to confirm that all figures and tables were actually included with the manuscript and, because Tables and Figures occupy space, to assess if the information provided by the figures and tables warrants the paper's length and if the manuscript fits within the journal's space limits.

Conflict of Interest declaration. Conflict of interest information for each author needs to be part of the manuscript's title page.

b. Abstract
Original research, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses require structured abstracts. The abstract should provide the context or background for the study and should state the study's purpose, basic procedures (selection of study participants, settings, measurements, analytical methods), main findings (giving specific effect sizes and their statistical and clinical significance, if possible), and principal conclusions. It should emphasise new and important aspects of the study or observations, note important limitations, and not over-interpret findings. Authors need to ensure that they accurately reflect the content of the article in the abstract, and information should be consistent in both places.
Clinical trial abstracts should adhere to the CONSORT guidelines. The clinical trial registration number should be provided. If the data have been deposited in a public repository, authors should state at the end of the abstract the data set name, repository name and number.

c. Introduction
Provide a context or background for the study (that is, the nature of the problem and its significance). State the specific purpose or research objective of, or hypothesis tested by, the study or observation. Cite only directly pertinent references, and do not include data or conclusions from the work being reported.

d. Methods
The guiding principle of the Methods section should be clarity about how and why a study was done in a particular way. Methods section should aim to be sufficiently detailed such that others with access to the data would be able to reproduce the results. This section should include only information that was available at the time the plan or protocol for the study was being written. If an organisation was paid or otherwise contracted to help conduct the research (examples include data collection and management), then this should be detailed in the methods.
The Methods section should include a statement indicating that the research was approved or exempted from the need for review by the responsible review committee (institutional or national).

i. Selection and Description of Participants - Clearly describe the selection of observational or experimental participants (healthy individuals or patients, including controls), including eligibility and exclusion criteria and a description of the source population. If the study was done involving an exclusive population, for example in only one sex, authors should justify why, except in obvious cases (e.g., prostate cancer). Authors should define how they measured race or ethnicity and justify their relevance.

ii. Technical Information - Specify the study's main and secondary objectives–usually identified as primary and secondary outcomes. Identify methods, equipment (give the manufacturer's name and address in parentheses), and procedures in sufficient detail to allow others to reproduce the results. Give references to established methods, including statistical methods (see below); provide references and brief descriptions for methods that have been published but are not well-known; describe new or substantially modified methods, give the reasons for using them, and evaluate their limitations. Identify precisely all drugs and chemicals used, including generic name(s), dose(s), and route(s) of administration. Identify appropriate scientific names and gene names.

iii. Statistics - Describe statistical methods with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to judge its appropriateness for the study and to verify the reported results. When possible, quantify findings and present them with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty (such as confidence intervals). Avoid relying solely on statistical hypothesis testing, such as P values, which fail to convey important information about effect size and precision of estimates. References for the design of the study and statistical methods should be to standard works when possible (with pages stated). Define statistical terms, abbreviations, and most symbols. Specify the statistical software package(s) and versions used. Distinguish pre-specified from exploratory analyses, including subgroup analyses.

e. Results
Present your results in logical sequence in the text, tables, and figures, giving the main or most important findings first. Do not repeat all the data in the tables or figures in the text; emphasise or summarise only the most important observations. Provide data on all primary and secondary outcomes identified in the Methods Section. Extra or supplementary materials and technical details can be placed in an appendix where they will be accessible but will not interrupt the flow of the text.

Give numeric results not only as derivatives (for example, percentages) but also as the absolute numbers from which the derivatives were calculated, and specify the statistical significance attached to them, if any. Restrict tables and figures to those needed to explain the argument of the paper and to assess supporting data. Use graphs as an alternative to tables with many entries; do not duplicate data in graphs and tables. Avoid nontechnical uses of technical terms in statistics, such as “random” (which implies a randomising device), “normal,” “significant,” “correlations,” and “sample.”

Separate reporting of data by demographic variables, such as age and sex, facilitate pooling of data for subgroups across studies and should be routine, unless there are compelling reasons not to stratify reporting, which should be explained.

f. Discussion
It is useful to begin the discussion by briefly summarising the main findings, and explore possible mechanisms or explanations for these findings. Emphasise the new and important aspects of your study and put your findings in the context of the totality of the relevant evidence. State the limitations of your study, and explore the implications of your findings for future research and for clinical practice or policy. Do not repeat in detail data or other information given in other parts of the manuscript, such as in the Introduction or the Results section.

Link the conclusions with the goals of the study but avoid unqualified statements and conclusions not adequately supported by the data. In particular, distinguish between clinical and statistical significance, and avoid making statements on economic benefits and costs unless the manuscript includes the appropriate economic data and analyses. Avoid claiming priority or alluding to work that has not been completed. State new hypotheses when war¬ranted, but label them clearly.

g. References
i. General Considerations Related to References
References should be in the Vancouver style. Authors should provide direct references to original research sources whenever possible. Do not use conference abstracts as references: they can be cited in the text, in parentheses, but not as page footnotes. References to papers accepted but not yet published should be designated as “in press” or “forthcoming.” Information from manuscripts submitted but not accepted should be cited in the text as “unpublished observations” with written permission from the source.

IDJSR will check all reference citations; however, citation errors sometimes appear in the published version of articles. To minimize such errors, references should be verified using either an electronic bibliographic source, such as PubMed, or print copies from original sources. Authors are responsible for checking that none of the references cite retracted articles except in the context of referring to the retraction. 

References should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. Identify references in text, tables, and legends by Arabic numerals in parentheses. References cited only in tables or figure legends should be numbered in accordance with the sequence established by the first identification in the text of the particular table or figure.

h. Tables
Number tables consecutively in the order of their first citation in the text and supply a title for each. Titles in tables should be short but self-explanatory, containing information that allows readers to understand the table's content without having to go back to the text. Be sure that each table is cited in the text.
Give each column a short or an abbreviated heading. Authors should place explanatory matter in footnotes, not in the heading. Explain all nonstandard abbreviations in footnotes, and use symbols to explain information if needed. Identify statistical measures of variations, such as standard deviation and standard error of the mean.
If you use data from another published or unpublished source, obtain permission and acknowledge that source fully.

i. Illustrations (Figures)
Digital images of manuscript illustrations should be submitted in a suitable format for print publication. Figures should be either professionally drawn and photographed, or submitted as photographic-quality digital prints.
For X-ray films, scans, and other diagnostic images, as well as pictures of pathology specimens or photomicrographs, send high-resolution photographic image files. Since blots are used as primary evidence in many scientific articles, editors may require deposition of the original photographs of blots on the journal's website.

Letters, numbers, and symbols on figures should therefore be clear and consistent throughout, and large enough to remain legible when the figure is reduced for publication. Figures should be made as self-explanatory as possible. Photomicrographs should have internal scale markers. Symbols, arrows, or letters used in photomicrographs should contrast with the background. Explain the internal scale and identify the method of staining in photomicrographs.

Figures should be numbered consecutively according to the order in which they have been cited in the text. If a figure has been published previously, acknowledge the original source and submit written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce it. Permission is required irrespective of authorship or publisher except for documents in the public domain.
In the manuscript, legends for illustrations should be on a separate page, with Arabic numerals corresponding to the illustrations. When symbols, arrows, numbers, or letters are used to identify parts of the illustrations, identify and explain each one clearly in the legend.

j. Units of Measurement
Measurements of length, height, weight, and volume should be reported in metric units (meter, kilogram, or litre) or their decimal multiples. Temperatures should be in degrees Celsius. Blood pressures should be in millimetres of mercury.
Report laboratory information in International System of Units (SI). Drug concentrations may be reported in either SI or mass units, but the alternative should be provided in parentheses where appropriate.

k. Abbreviations and Symbols
Use only standard abbreviations; use of nonstandard abbreviations can be confusing to readers. Avoid abbreviations in the title of the manuscript. The spelled-out abbreviation followed by the abbreviation in parenthesis should be used on first mention unless the abbreviation is a standard unit of measurement.

Cover letter
Please include a cover letter for the manuscript, signed by the corresponding author. It should include the following information:

-A full statement to the editor about all submissions and previous reports that might be regarded as redundant publication of the same or very similar work.
-A statement of financial or other relationships that might lead to a conflict of interest. Also, mention funding sources.
-A statement on authorship.
-Contact information for the author responsible for communicating with other authors about revisions and final approval of the proofs.
-The letter should inform editors if concerns have been raised (e.g., via institutional and/or regulatory bodies) regarding the conduct of the research or if corrective action has been recommended.

Transfer of Publication 
The authors are requested to send a transfer of copyright (signed by all authors) if the manuscript is approved for publication. 

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